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市场研究<巴西:颗粒行业的前景及面临的挑战> TRENDS AND CHALLENGES OF BRAZILIAN PELLETS

文章出处:本站 人气:54 发表时间:2017/3/2 9:36:35

   
摘要ABSTRACT

木屑颗粒是由农林废弃物如甘蔗渣、木屑和刨花等生产的生物燃料。它们是低水分的压缩生物燃料,燃烧效率高、容易处理的、高能量密度的天然产物。为了研究巴西的颗粒机会(包括生产和销售情况),有必要了解关于该市场的能源特性、技术、价格和前景等信息。因此,本文旨在组织和提供这些信息,使人们能够把握这一市场的基本情况,加大对生物燃料行业的投资;主要是通过增加该国大量的农林废弃物价值。结果显示出这是一个年轻的行业,有16个颗粒厂,2014年生产49390吨颗粒,但仅利用其年生产能力的25.5%。

Wood pellets are biofuels produced from agroforestry waste such as sugarcane bagasse, wood sawdust and shavings. They are compressed biofuels that have low moisture, allowing high combustion efficiency, especially because they are natural products of easily handling with high energy density. To explore pellets opportunities in Brazil (production and marketing), it is necessary to provide information about the chemical and energy characteristics, technologies, prices and prospects of this market. Thus, this article aims to organize and make this information available, enabling general knowledge on the subject and subsidize more investment in the biofuels sector; mostly by adding value to agroforestry waste, available in large volumes in this country. The results showed a young industry, with sixteen plants and production of 49.39ktonnes of pellets in 2014, but using only 25.5% of its annual production capacity.


简介INTRODUCTION

木屑颗粒作为能量来源在家用、商业和工业供热中的使用越来越广泛。木材是颗粒的主要原料,但不是唯一的。在巴西农林业废弃物如甘蔗渣和锯屑(松树和桉树)用于生产颗粒。然而还在研究其他,如使用象草(狼尾草)和黑荆树作为原料。这些类型的生物质可以通过制粒过程压缩并且呈现低水分含量,使其能够在燃烧期间增加效率。制粒后形成的规则的圆柱几何形状能够用于在各种工业系统自动进料,例如在住宅加热器。
Wood pellets are used more and more frequently as an energy source in equipment for household, commercial and industrial heating . Wood is the main raw material of pellets, but not the only one. In Brazil, agro-forestry residues such as sugarcane bagasse and sawdust (Pinus and Eucalyptus) are used for the production of pellets. However, there are other options under study, such as the use of elephant grass (Pennisetum sp) and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) as a feedstock. These types of biomass can be compressed by a pelletization process and present low moisture content, enabling efficiency during combustion. The regular and cylindrical geometry formed after pelletization enables automatic feed in various industrial systems, such as in residential heaters.

在这种情况下颗粒脱颖而出,因为它们是很容易处理的天然产品。它们存储空间小并且具有高能量密度。

In this scenario, pellets stand out because they are easy to handle natural products. They require little storage space and have high energy density.

它们主要应用于产生热能,但它们也可以用作工业或发电厂中发电的燃料。此外木屑颗粒服务于小动物,替代猫砂,因为它们的吸附特性。

Their main application is for generation of thermal energy but they can also be used as fuel for the generation of electricity in industry or power plants. Moreover, wood pellets are negotiated as granular toilet for small animals, which replaces cat litter, because of their adsorptive characteristics .

颗粒的使用有利于环境,是一种低碳能源,即几乎所有燃烧释放的二氧化碳都能在植物生长中被回收。巴西是最多使用生物质用于能源生产的国家,占世界使用量的16%。由于高度密集的森林和甘蔗种植,巴西的南部和东南部地区农林生物质的能源生产潜力最高。

The use of pellets benefits the environment, being a low-carbon energy, i.e. almost all the CO2 emitted in their burning is recovered on plant growth. Brazil is the country that most uses biomass for energy production, 16% of world use. The South and Southeast regions in Brazil have the highest energy generation potential from agroforestry biomass due to the high concentration of forest plantations and sugarcane.
 
巴西是一个农业国家,每年都会产生大约3.3亿吨的生物质废弃物,由于低密度、低热值和高水分含量等特征,导致这些都不是理想能源。这些负面性质阻碍其使用,导致高运输成本,处理和储存困难以及低能量密度。巴西具备颗粒生产能力,前提是要利用其大量的可用农林废弃物。

Brazil stands out as an agricultural country and every year, about 330 Mtonnes of biomass waste are generated in the country, which is not used as energy by the lack of ideal characteristics such as low-density, low calorific value and high moisture content. These negative qualities hinders its use because it results in high transport costs, difficulty in handling and storage, as well as low energy density. Brazil has the potential for pellet production, taking advantage of the large volume of available agroforestry waste.

然而并非所有农林生物质都适合生产颗粒,主要取决于残余灰分的矿物元素。例如稻草秸秆具有高达15%的灰分含量,并且估计高于4%被认为不适合燃烧,这是由于二氧化硅含量高,可能引起燃烧器的腐蚀和过度磨损。在评估农业废弃物,如稻草甘蔗渣椰子壳等之后,发现它们有产生热能的潜力。然而这些都有灰分含量高于0.7%的非住宅使用限制,如欧洲标准ISO 17225-6(ISO,2014)所规定的非木屑颗粒。

However, not all agroforestry biomasses are suitable for the production of pellets mainly due to mineral elements responsible for the formation of residual ash. The Rice straw, for example, have up to 15% of ash content and values above 4% are considered unsuitable for combustion due to the high silica content, which can cause corrosion and excessive wear in the burners. After the assessment of agricultural waste, such as rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, coconut shell, among others, it was found they have potential to generate thermal energy. However, with non-residential use limitation of those with ash content higher than 0.7%, as specified by European standard ISO 17225-6 (ISO, 2014), for non-wood pellets.

在巴西使用农林废弃物的可行性是受运输成本影响,包括距离和收集物流。当颗粒成为全球贸易的商品后,巴西开始成为农林生物质行业的主要参与者之一,需要更可靠和准确的颗粒市场数据。

The viability of using agroforestry waste in Brazil is subject to distance and logistics of collecting, impacting transport costs. After pellets became commodities traded worldwide, Brazil has been named as one of the main actors in this agroforestry biomass segment; increasing the necessity for more reliable and accurate data on pellets market. Thus, to explore the opportunities of this business (production and marketing) it is important to provide information regarding the availability of raw materials, domestic and foreign markets, chemical and energy characteristics and potential clients.


方法论METHODOLOGY

巴西的生物质颗粒市场的官方数据很少。因此为了掌握更多数据,于2015年5-7月对19个颗粒生产者(生产+准备生产+停产)和巴西颗粒行业协会(ABIPEL)成员进行调查。目标是了解生产者基本情况、生产能力、使用的技术、价格、主要原材料,启动年份和行业的当前状态,以完成2014年颗粒图。

The official figures on agroforestry pellets are few and inadequate in Brazilian market. So, a survey of general information from the nineteen producers (producing + ready to produce + disabled) and members of the Brazilian Association of Pellets Industry - ABIPEL was held from May to July 2015. The exploratory research aimed at producing a qualitative and quantitative description of the pellets industry in Brazil. The questionnaire method was used because it is faster and more economical, especially considering that industries are widely dispersed geographically. The objective was to diagnose the profile of producers, production capacity, technology used, prices, main raw material, year of startup, and the current state of the industry to create the Map of Pellets 2014.

2014年的巴西颗粒图,生产行业分为四种类型。正在生产的企业,表明正常生产颗粒的公司。准备运营的行业,代表已经准备好生产的设备,但目前不生产的公司。停产企业,代表已经停用其设备,不再生产颗粒的企业。最后那些仍在建设中企业。

To create the map of pellets in Brazil in 2014, the producing industries were categorized into four types. Industries that are producing, indicating the companies that are manufacturing pellets normally. Industries that are ready to operate, representing companies that have the plant and equipment ready for production, but are not currently producing. Disabled industries, representing those that have disabled their equipment and are no longer producing pellets. Finally, those that are still under construction, representing future developments that have been announced, but are still under implementation.

结论ESULTS AND DISCUSSION

发现了这些行业的特征,如生产能力、技术和颗粒生产中使用的主要原材料。

Some parameters were found that characterize these industries, such as production capacity, technology and main raw materials used in the manufacture of agropellets.

我们可以推断出巴西的农林生物质颗粒行业相对年轻,这个市场将在2004年有巨大的扩张潜力。在欧洲和北美这种可再生燃料的出现发生在三十五年前,在70年代末解决石油危机。因此与主要生产国相比,巴西的颗粒市场时间相差约为二十五年。这种延迟的影响可以看出,虽然生产量低,用于生产颗粒的国内技术,都是从动物饲料生产过渡的; 而且这种生物燃料在国内市场上的低使用率,导致了行业的闲置。

It is possible to infer that the agroforestry biomass pellet industries in Brazil are relatively young; they have started in 2004, and have great potential for expansion. In Europe and North America, the emergence of this renewable fuel, occurred more than thirty-five years ago, in the late 70s, to solve the oil crisis. Thus, the agropellet market in Brazil, compared to the major producing countries, has a time gap of about twenty-five years. The effect of this delay can be seen though the low current production ; the national technology used in the production of pellets, which are adapted from animal feed production; and low use of this biofuel in the domestic market, resulting in idleness in the industry.

此文关键字:木屑颗粒,颗粒行业,巴西市场分析,生物燃料,低碳能源