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市场研究|巴西颗粒市场分布状况资料及研究

文章出处:本站 人气:67 发表时间:2017/3/3 10:26:56

表1  2014主要颗粒生产国产量
TABLE 1 Pellet production of major producing countries in 2014.

 木屑颗粒机,生物质颗粒机,稻壳颗粒机,秸秆颗粒机

Source: Forti; Hemrard (2014)

表2  巴西农林生物质颗粒产业调查问卷汇总表。

TABLE 2 Summary of questionnaires sent to agroforestry biomass pellet industries in Brazil.  

木屑颗粒机,生物质颗粒机,稻壳颗粒机,秸秆颗粒机


 Working eight-hour shifts per day.

2004年在巴西只有2家公司生产颗粒,而目前有16家。对可再生能源替代资源的需求增加,替代石油及其产品,使全球颗粒市场扩张。
There were only two companies manufacturing pellets in Brazil in 2004; and sixteen currently. The growing demand for alternative resource of renewable energy, to replace oil and its products, explains the expansion of the global pellet market.

据估计,从2004-2014年,巴西每年的生产量增长4%,可能更高,因为还有一些可制成颗粒的农林废弃物尚未被商用。
It is estimated that production de pellets grew 4.0% per year in Brazil,  from 2004 to 2014, and could be higher, given the amount of agroforestry wastes that do not have any commercial application yet, which could be transformed into agropellets.

本研究中颗粒生产商,在巴西的19家公司都是使用木材废料(松树锯屑)作为其主要原材料。
According to the pellet producers researched in this study, all nineteen companies that have produced or still produce in Brazil, use waste from the timber industry (Pinus sawdust) as their principal raw material.

图1 2014年巴西颗粒产量的区域分布。

木屑颗粒机,生物质颗粒机,稻壳颗粒机,秸秆颗粒机 

根据图1,颗粒生产的区域分布不均匀。 目前,巴西颗粒行业(约81.4%)的大部分生产集中在南部,分布在巴拉那州(PR)、圣卡塔琳娜州(SC)和南里奥格兰德州(RS)。约18.6%的巴西颗粒是在巴西东南部圣保罗州(SP)生产的。
According to Figure 1, the distribution of pellets production by region is uneven. Currently, most of the production of Brazilian pellet industries (approximately 81.4%) are concentrated in the South,distributed by the states of Parana (PR), Santa Catarina (SC) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS). About 18.6% of Brazilian pellets are produced in the state of S?o Paulo (SP), Southeast region of Brazil.

“2014颗粒地图”显示了巴西的颗粒生产分布(图2)。南方和东南地区集中了巴西的木材加工行业73%的废弃物,该国种植竹子的比例最高,为84.6%(IBá,2015)。因此,在这些地区,所有活跃颗粒生产者都来自巴西的农林业。
FIGURE 1 Regional distribution of pellet production in Brazil in 2014. The Map of Pellets 2014 shows the distribution of plants in Brazil (Figure 2). The South and Southeast regions concentrate 73% of waste from wood industries processed in Brazil and is where there arethe highest percentages of areas with plantations of Pinus in the country, 84.6% (IBá, 2015). Therefore, in these regions are grouped all active producers pellets from agroflorestry in Brazil.

图2 2014年巴西颗粒生产行业状况。

木屑颗粒机,生物质颗粒机,稻壳颗粒机,秸秆颗粒机 

对于巴西使用的制粒技术,可以推断,57.9%使用国家设备,其技术含量较低,因此生产率较低,如图3所示。类似地,表3数据显示,巴西颗粒生产商使用的设备是小型的,产能低。
FIGURE 2 Status of pellet producing industries in Brazil in 2014. As for the pelletizing technology used by Brazilian industry, it can be inferred that 57.9% use national equipments, which has less

technological appeal and consequently low productivity, as shown in Figure 3. Similarly, Table 3 data show that the equipment used by pellet producers are small and the Brazilian industry has low capacity.

图3  巴西农林复合生物质颗粒生产与闲置。
FIGURE 3 Agroforestry biomass pellet production in Brazil vs. industry

idleness.

木屑颗粒机,生物质颗粒机,稻壳颗粒机,秸秆颗粒机 


表3  巴西与其他主要颗粒生产国产能对比。
TABLE 3 Production capacity of the major pellet producers compared

to Brazil.
 
木屑颗粒机,生物质颗粒机,稻壳颗粒机,秸秆颗粒机

此外,颗粒生产商报告说,国内制粒设备的制造商处于技术过渡阶段,从动物饲料制粒到生物质颗粒,适应农林生物质的物理和化学特性。除了技术问题,原材料运输到工厂、颗粒到消费者或港口的高物流成本,还有巴西的电力成本,高达美国的四倍(48.00美元/兆瓦时),是造成巴西颗粒行业低竞争力和高度闲置的其他因素。

In addition, the pellet producers report that domestic manufacturers of pelletizing equipment are in a technology transition phase, fromthe animal feed pelleting to biomass pelleting, adapting to the physical and chemical characteristics of the agroforestry biomass.

Besides the technological issue, the high logistic costs of raw material transport to the factory, and from the pellets to the consumer or toharbors, added the cost of electricity in Brazil, is up to four timeshigher than in the US ($ 48.00/MWh), are other factors that contribute to low competitiveness and high idleness of the Brazilian pellet industry.

巴西的颗粒生产企业,如果按照每天运行8小时的话,生产能力约为193,650 吨/年,但目前的产量只有这个的25.5%。这项研究发现,2014年巴西这种可再生燃料的产量为49,390,吨。这一产量大于IBá(2015年)和Lamers等人估计的产量。在过去四年中,产能利用率的百分比有所下降(图3),这种高度的闲置是由于缺乏国内需求,缺乏对颗粒使用的利益和优势的了解,也因为市场仍处于发展阶段。
The pellet-producing companies in Brazil, considering an 8.0-hour shift per day, have a production capacity of about 193.65 ktonnes.y-1,but their current production reaches only 25.5% of this capacity. This research, carried out with producers, found that the production of this renewable fuel was 49.39 ktonnes in Brazil in 2014. This production is larger than the one estimated by IBá (2015) and Lamers.The percentage of capacity utilization has declined over the past four years (Figure 3) and the producers urge that this high idleness is explained by the lack of domestic demand, due to the lack of knowledge of benefits and advantages in the use of pellets and also because the market is still in a developing phase.

大多数巴西颗粒厂(79%)的颗粒产能为0.5-4.0吨/小时。这些技术问题限制了国内颗粒的使用,国内市场不发达。除此之外,许多国家如瑞典、奥地利、德国、美国和加拿大,已经制定了严格的质量、储存、运输和农林颗粒燃烧标准。 这些考虑了整个监管链,确保从原材料生产到最终消费者的可追溯性。大多数国内设备没有达到ISO 17225-2和ISO 2014的质量标准。这就是为什么他们不能获得质量标准,不能进入欧洲市场。因此,很少有受访公司与这个消费市场合作。
Most Brazilian pellets plants (79 %) had small pelletizing production between 0.5 to 4.0 tonnes per hour. These technological issues limit the use of pellets within domestic market, which is undeveloped in the country. Besides that, many countries as Sweden, Austria,Germany, USA and Canada, have developed strict quality, storage,transport and agroforestry pellets combustion standards. These takes into account the entire chain of custody, ensuring traceability from raw material production to the final consumer. Most of the domestic equipment do not achieve the quality specifications from ISO 17225-2 and ISO, 2014. That is the reason they fail to get the seal of quality, demanded by the companies for exports, restricting the entry of agropellets into the European market. Thus, few surveyed companies are operating with this consumer market.

这些生物燃料在巴西市场的销售价格,每吨480,00至600,00雷亚尔(巴西免费港口)。在颗粒生产中,高成本和生产规模被视为挑战。更高的生产、更好的质量和更低的成本是这些生产者实现最有利可图的出口市场的关键。
The sale prices of these biofuels range from R$ 480,00 to R$ 600,00 per tonnes (Free on Board/Port in Brazil), within Brazilian market.Both in briquettes and pellets production, the high cost and the scale of production are seen as challenges to be overcome . Highe rproduction, with better quality and lower cost is the key for these producers to achieve the most profitable export market.

近年来,巴西颗粒生产的停滞不前归结以下三个主要因素:
(a)缺乏对颗粒优点的了解---即更有效的能量解决方案;
(b)巴西颗粒行业刚起步,国内市场仍处于发展阶段;
(c)巴西颗粒生产商正在根据欧洲出口所需的认证标准进行调整。目前,主要应用针对比萨店、面包店、酒店、水上公园、游泳馆、油漆炉、食品行业、电镀、洗衣店、轮胎翻新和塑料行业的供热发电。根据所调查的生产者, 这些消耗大约占95%的国内生产。巴西市场还出现其他颗粒应用,如颗粒替代传统的“猫砂”,占剩余(5%)的国内颗粒产量。
The stagnation of pellet production in Brazil in recent years can be explained by three main factors: (a) lack of knowledge of the advantages of pellets as more efficient energy solution; (b) the pellet business in Brazil is recent and the domestic market is still in a developing stage; (c) Brazilian pellet producers are adapting to European standards for the required certification for export. Currently, the main application has been directed towards thethermal power generation to pizza place, bakeries, hotels, water parks, swimming gyms, paint ovens, food industries, electroplating,industrial laundries, tires retreading and plastic industries. According to the researched producers, these segments consume about 95% of domestic production. Exotic applications are also found in the Brazilian market, such as pellets to replace the traditional "cat litter", using the remainder (5%) of the national production of this biofuel.

为了巩固和扩大巴西颗粒行业的前景,必须增加颗粒需求,加强生产者协作,制定质量标准,促进高效率和高技术含量的设备进口,主要是政府为农林生物质行业提供资金资助,类似于其他能源。表4显示了巩固和促进颗粒行业增长的系统化战略。这是结合调查的颗粒生产公司,以及国内和国际颗粒行业发展趋势进行分析的。基于这些分析,确定最重要的因素:确定行动重点,指导努力克服技术挑战,为巴西的颗粒市场提供增长机会。
The prospects for consolidating and expanding the pellets industry in Brazil include issues such as support to increase demand, strengthen producers' association, establish quality standards, facilitate the entry of imported equipment with higher production efficiency and technology, and mainly, specific government funding for agroforestry biomass sector, similar to other energy sources. Table 4 shows a systematization of the strategic elements for the consolidation andgrowth of the pellets industry. This scenario was created from the consultation carried out with producing pellets companies and from analyzes of national and international trends from the literature.Based on these analyzes, it is possible to identify the most important elements: establishing priorities for action, directing efforts to overcome technical challenges, providing growth opportunities for the pellets market in Brazil.

表4 促进巴西生物质颗粒市场发展的战略行动计划。
TABLE 4 Strategic action proposals aimed at developing the

agropellets market in Brazil.
 
木屑颗粒机,生物质颗粒机,稻壳颗粒机,秸秆颗粒机

必须要善用现有的一些机会,使颗粒在国家能源结构中占据更大的供热发电比例。建立国家固体废物政策(BRASIL,2010),鼓励发展环境管理,提高生产过程固体废物资源再利用。因此,我们更感兴趣于农林生物质废物的资源化利用,将其制粒或压块成生物燃料。195个国家在巴黎气候变化大会(COP21)上签署了全球气候变化协议,将在21世纪向低碳能源过渡,使用农林生物质能够应对新的挑战清洁、可再生和可持续能源挑战。然而,制定生物燃料生产者和消费者的标准、法律和激励政策是必要的,如美国和瑞典。这些国家为购买木质颗粒设备提供补贴和免税,这是使用石油或天然气所没有的。颗粒易于运输和处理,应加强颗粒燃烧器在食品加工行业的的应用(例如比萨店和面包店)。在大型城市,如圣保罗,货运卡车在早上限行几个钟,可以用颗粒燃料炉来替代那些使用木柴或天然气的炉子。巴西物流成本高,影响行业竞争力,必须要解决。
Some opportunities need to be better used, so that pellets can occupy a more significant share of thermal power generation in the National Energy Matrix. Thereby, we expect greater interest in the reuse of waste of agroforestry biomass, favoring its transformation into solid compressed biofuels as pellets and briquettes. In the same sense, the global climate change agreement signed by 195 countries at the Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) signaled that there will be a transition to low-carbon energy in the XXI century and the use of agroforestry biomasses meet the new challenges of cleaner,renewable and sustainable energy. However, standards, laws and incentive policies for producers and consumers of biofuels are necessary, as seen in the USA and Sweden. These countries offer subsidies and tax exemptions for the purchase of equipment that uses wood pellets instead of oil or gas. Ease of transport, handling of pellets, lending system for pellets burners used by companies engaged in the food business, such as pizzerias and bakeries. In large cities, such as S?o Paulo, where delivery trucks have controlled access only for a few hours early in the morning, the practicality of pellet-fuelled furnaces has provided good business to replace those using firewood or gas. The high Brazilian logistics costs, which affect the competitiveness of industries, is an example of negative aspects to be overcome.

企业都知道在短期内没有解决这些问题。因此,他们在靠近港口和原材料的地方建立厂房,降低运输成本。至于电价高昂,企业是通过对颗粒厂的内部设计解决,避免不必要的能源开支。还有许多挑战必须要细化,例如缺乏颗粒质量的监管标准,这可以通过欧洲质量标准ISO 17225-2和ISO 2014来解决。
Companies know that in the short term there is no solution to these problems. For this reason, they develop industrial plants close to ports and to the raw material, to minimize these costs with transportation. As for the high price of electricity, those companies developing plant designs for compact pellets; aim to minimize energy expenses from unnecessary internal movements. There are many challenges that need to be minimized, such as the absence of regulatory standards of the quality of pellets, which could be solved in Brazil with the acceptance of quality standards in Europe with ISO 17225-2 and ISO 2014.

 

来源:Universidade Federal de Lavras
Author:
Dorival Pinheiro Garcia1 
José Cláudio Caraschi
Gustavo Ventorim  
Fabio Henrique Antunes Vieira


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此文关键字:颗粒厂,木屑颗粒机,颗粒市场,生物质颗粒,颗粒生产商,巴西颗粒,iso质量标准