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EBRD研究:生物质有助于帮助土耳其和埃及应对能源挑战

文章出处:本站 人气:98 发表时间:2017/3/21 9:56:25

埃及 土耳其

欧洲复兴开发银行和粮食及农业组织的一项新研究表明,土耳其和埃及的联合生物质可以产生足够的电力,以供应70万户家庭和可再生燃料,替代每年超过200万公吨的石油。这些发现对于面临的能源挑战的两个国家来说是个好消息。
A new study by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the Food and Agriculture Organizatio?shows, the combined biomass of Turkey?and Egypt could generate enough electricity to supply 700,000 homes and renewable fuels to replace more than 2 million metric tons of oil each year. These findings are good news for two countries that are facing similar, and significant, energy challenges.
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1、土耳其的可再生能源计划
Turkey’s renewable energy plan

土耳其的经济增长和城市化导致电力消费的稳定增长,这几乎完全由进口化石燃料满足。为了减少这种依赖和减少预算赤字,该国已经定下目标,包括将可再生能源的份额从2013年的13.5%提高到2023年的20.5%。
Economic growth and urbanisation in Turkey has resulted in a steady increase in electricity consumption, which is almost entirely met by imported fossil fuels. To reduce this dependency and decrease the budget deficit, the country has adopted ambitious targets including raising the share of renewable energy from a level of 13.5 percent in 2013 to 20.5 percent in 2023.

研究表明,超过2500万吨农作物废弃物(主要来自向日葵、玉米和棉花)以及牛和鸡的1.5亿吨牲畜粪便,可能产生超过1GW电力,实现100%的国家生物质可再生能源目标。尤其棉花秸秆具有巨大的潜力-- 如果单独使用20%秸秆来生产压块和颗粒,则每年可以产生另外100万吨油当量(Mtoe)。这相当于“土耳其可再生能源行动计划”中规定的生物质供热和冷却目标的30%。总体而言,确定的生物能源潜力的话,可能每年减少600万吨二氧化碳当量的温室气体(GHG)排放,这等于超过130万辆轿车的排放量。
In this context, the study shows that more than 25 million tonnes of crop residues–mainly from sunflower, maize and cotton–and an indicative 150 million metric of livestock residues from cattle buffalo and layer chickens could generate more than 1 GW of electricity, or 100 percent of the national target for renewable energy from biomass. Cotton stalk residues in particular have enormous potential–if 20 percent alone of the stalk residue were used to produce briquettes and pellets, an additional 1 million metric tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) could be produced each year. This is equivalent to 30 percent of the biomass heating and cooling targets set out in the Turkish Renewable Energy Action Plan. Overall, the identified bioenergy potential could result in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions of 6 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent each year, which is equal to the emissions from more than 1.3 million passenger cars. 


2、埃及生物质发展潜力
Potential of biomass in Egypt


埃及是全球第11个温室气体增长最快的国家。近年来,能源补贴导致高额预算赤字,政府正在通过一项改革来解决,目标是到2019年将补贴减少到GDP的0.5%。同时,可再生能源目标已经确定:增加可再生能源装机容量,从2012年的3,385MW增加到2020年的11,320MW,或该国能源结构的20%。
Egypt ranks amongst the 11 fastest growing greenhouse gas emitters in the world. In recent years, energy subsidies have led to a high budget deficit which the government is addressing through a reform that aims to decrease subsidies to 0.5 percent of GDP by 2019. Meanwhile, an ambitious renewable energy target has been set: increasing renewable energy installed capacity from 3,385 MW in 2012 to 11,320 MW by 2020, or 20 percent of the country’s energy mix.

估计500万吨农作物废弃物和1400万吨牲畜粪便可以产生超过750MW的能源潜力,相当于上述目标的7%。生物燃料的潜力估计为每年约1.8 Mtoe,即全国年液化石油气消费量的30%。这些废弃物主要集中在Middle Delta地区的Behera、Sharkia、Dakahlia和Kafr-El Sheikh。总的来说,每年可减少650万吨二氧化碳当量得排放量(相当于140万辆汽车排放)。
The estimated availability of 5 million metric tons of crop residues and 14 million metric tons of livestock residues could unlock an energy potential of more than 750 MW, which is equivalent to 7 percent of the above target. The biofuels’ potential is estimated at about 1.8 Mtoe per year, or 30 percent of the annual liquefied petroleum gas consumption of the country. These residues are mostly concentrated in the Governorates of Behera, Sharkia, Dakahlia and Kafr-El Sheikh, all in the Middle Delta region. Overall, emissions could be reduced by 6.5 million metric tonsof CO2 equivalent (the same as 1.4 million cars on the road) annually.

3、挑战
Challenges


虽然研究揭示了生物质利用的潜力,但也指出了挑战。缺乏对生物质潜力以及其利用的了解和认识,是限制扩大目前生物质的利用。对于这两个国家,这一领域的技术市场仍然是新兴的,还有改善政策环境的余地。此外,发展生物质供应链所需的基础设施和物流也很不发达。
While the study reveals the potential for biomass use, it also acknowledges challenges. A lack of awareness and understanding about where potential exists and how it can be exploited are currently limiting the scaling-up of biomass use. Markets for technologies in this area are still nascent in both countries and there is also scope to improve the policy environment.In addition, the infrastructure and logistics required to develop the biomass supply chain are also very underdeveloped.

该研究是确定将生物废物转化为能源的可持续方式的重要的第一步。它清楚地绘制了与食物链无关的资源和可以收集这些资源的优先地点。它还给出了在不同市场条件下最有效的利用路线的初步想法。该研究与公共和私营部门利益相关者高度相关,包括市场和决策者、项目开发商和投资者。
The study is an important first step towards the identification of sustainable ways for turning bio-wastes into energy. It provides a clear mapping of resources that are not related to the food chain and priority locations where these resources can be collected. It also gives an initial idea of the most effective utilization routes under different market conditions. The study is highly relevant for public and private sector stakeholders including market and policy makers, project developers and investors.

欧洲复兴开发银行打算在研究结果的基础上,利用在与粮农组织合作期间创建的专业人员和政府代表网络,以促进(可能资助)生物能源领域的良好投资项目。这将包括与相关部门合作,改进政策和法规,与部门和市场参与者一起开发废弃物供应链以及生物能源生产和利用平台。
The EBRD intends to build on the results of the study and the network of professionals and government representatives created during this cooperation with the FAO to promote (and possibly finance) sound investment projects in the bioenergy space. This will include working with the relevant authorities to improve policies and regulations and with sector and market players to develop the supply chains for residues as well as bioenergy production and utilisation platforms.

 
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此文关键字:可再生能源,生物质,生物燃料,颗粒机之乡,木屑颗粒机